Allergic Rhinitis, also known as hayfever; affects 10-40% of people in the UK, and can be either seasonal or perennial.
Important to know: Chronic health conditions should be addressed under direct medical supervision of your GP or consultant, and acupuncture would be an adjunct or complement to usual care – we advise that you let you doctor know when you use this approach.
About the research: It is worth noting that in research, randomised controlled studies (RCT) are the most reliable in terms of quality of evidence, with a systematic review or meta analysis of numerous studies being the best way of seeing the overall picture of the state of the evidence. Below we have a selection of the available research, which does include some larger RCTs, and reviews of the literature alongside smaller studies. The n= figure tells you how many people were participants in the study.
The British Acupuncture Council has a Research digest where they examined some recent studies on Allergic Rhinitis, with an overall trend that acupuncture was found beneficial, comparing favourably with antihistamine use. A review of the literature (Taw et al, 2015) found that high-quality RCTs demonstrated efficacy and effectiveness of acupuncture in this condition, and also was beneficial in terms of quality of life measures, the researchers also stated that further high quality studies are desirable in this area due to some methodological limits on study designs.
Feng et al, (2015) carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of acupuncture in allergic rhinitis, entailing 13 papers (N=2365 in total); the researchers stated this was a safe intervention which gave improvement in the Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) scores of the participants in the acupuncture groups.
Two studies have also established cost effectiveness of acupuncture in this field Kim et al, (2012) carried out a systematic review of 17 RCTs using the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) measure the NHS uses, demonstrating that as well as offering benefits, these were value for money where acupuncture was used. Witt and Brinkhaus (2010) reached a similar conclusion but more tentatively, calling for further studies to establish this.
Overall, acupuncture may help to relieve pain and congestion, and has “clinically relevant and persistent benefits” (British Acupuncture Council Factsheet (see link below).
Possible mechanisms of action in allergy:
A review article (Kavoussi & Ross, 2007) suggests that the anti-inflammatory actions that have been demonstrated to be brought about by acupuncture may be mediated via activation of the vagus nerve, alongside deactivation of inflammatory macrophages and other proinflammatory cytokines. The researchers concluded that “The use of acupuncture as an adjunct therapy to conventional medical treatment for a number of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases seems plausible and should be validated by confirming its cholinergicity”. Other studies (Zijlstra et al, 2003) have revealed that acupuncture some of the pain modulating and anti-inflammatory effects exhibited in acupuncture may be due to the fact that it has been shown to stimulate certain substances in the body which act as vasodilators, neurotransmitters and painkillers (beta-endorphins, CGRP and substance P) and further stimulate cytokines and nitric oxide, all of which play roles in inflammatory states.
British Acupuncture Council evidence based factsheet about allergic rhinitis including specific research, trials and mechanisms of action for acupuncture in this condition.
British Acupuncture Council Research Digest – Allergic Rhinitis (approx halfway down the document)
Our pages on Allergies may also be of interest
Feng, S., Han, M., Fan, Y., Yang, G., Liao, Z., Liao, W. and Li, H., 2015. Acupuncture for the treatment of allergic rhinitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American journal of rhinology & allergy, 29(1), pp.57-62.
Kavoussi B, Ross BE. The neuroimmune basis of anti-inflammatory acupuncture. Integr Cancer Ther 2007; 6: 251-7.
Kim, S.Y., Lee, H., Chae, Y., Park, H.J. and Lee, H., 2012. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses alongside randomised controlled trials of acupuncture. Acupuncture in Medicine, 30(4), pp.273-285.
Taw, M.B., Reddy, W.D., Omole, F.S. and Seidman, M.D., 2015. Acupuncture and allergic rhinitis. Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery, 23(3), pp.216-220.
Witt, C.M. and Brinkhaus, B., 2010. Efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of acupuncture for allergic rhinitis—an overview about previous and ongoing studies. Autonomic Neuroscience, 157(1-2), pp.42-45.
Zijlstra, F.J., van den Berg-de Lange, I., Huygen, F.J. and Klein, J., 2003. Anti-inflammatory actions of acupuncture. Mediators of inflammation, 12(2), pp.59-69.