Acupuncture, fertility and pregnancy
Overview and research findings
Acupuncture can be helpful for those wishing to conceive who may be experiencing difficulties, or undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). A large number of patients use acupuncture for fertility reasons in the UK (Bovey et al, 2010) the same is true here at Shaftesbury Clinic. There is a great deal of scientific evidence to support the use of acupuncture in fertility and ART.
Acupuncture can also help support pregnancy, by relieving morning sickness (hyperemesis gravidarum), lower back pain, post-caesarian pain and by also giving the mother-to-be emotional support through a time of transition and new life (Smith et al, 2002, Khorram et al, 2005; Xu, et al, 2012; Manber et al, 2010). Acupuncture may also be helpful in labour induction (Lim et al, 2009) and in the correction of breech presentation (Vas et al, 2009; Li et al, 2009; Van den Berg et al, 2008)
We have a great deal of experience in the use of acupuncture for couples trying to conceive, both naturally, and via ART – including IVF, ICSI and IMSI. Many of our patients are local in Bedfordshire but some also travel from further afield, and many undergo ART treatment at Bourn Hall, Lister and other clinics, with us supporting them with acupuncture here in Bedford. Acupuncture has been very popular for centuries in China for this purpose, but in the West it had only been in the past few decades that it has become recognised for its benefits in the fertility field.
In 2001 researchers found that acupuncture improved the changes of conception in IVF, stating that “Acupuncture seems to be a powerful tool to improve pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction therapy” (Zhang et al, 2001: pp1). Numerous research studies followed, and Magarelli et al, 2004 stated that acupuncture for fertility was gaining popularity, their study showed acupuncture to significantly increase birth outcomes, and significantly decrease the rates of ectopic pregnancy and of miscarriage in IVF patients, (see alsoKhorram et al, 2005). Acupuncture improves the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and live birth rate (LBR) with IVF (Zheng, Huang, Zhang& Wang 2012)
Research and media interest rose after a landmark study which appeared in the British Medical Journal (the Journal of the British Medical Association) in 2008. That study concluded current preliminary evidence suggests that acupuncture given with embryo transfer improves rates of pregnancy and live birth among women undergoing in vitro fertilisation. (Manheimer et al, 2008)
After the BMJ study; a large, peer-reviewed and scientifically stringent study in the world-renowned medical press; this led to a further increase in the number of patients seeking acupuncture for fertility reasons.
Further research followed, and continues; to understand biologically how these affects are achieved, and also to deduce the best acupuncture points and protocols to use, and the best timings for these. This is one of the reasons why continual professional training is so important for our practitioners – they can keep on top of the latest developments and research to give our patients the best treatment.
Acupuncture close to the time of embryo transfer has been studied a great deal, and found to be beneficial to a positive outcome. Outside of IVF, acupuncture has been used and studied for other fertility issues, which we will cover later in this article, including:
- Polycysticovarian syndrome (PCOS) (Zheng et al, 2013; Jedel et al 2010; Ren et al, 2014; Aquino et al, 2014; Stener-Victorin et al 2011, Stener-Victorin et al 2014; Lim et al, 2010))
- Endometriosis (Xiang,D et al, 2002; Jin et al, 2009; Chen at al, 2010)
- Endocrine dysfunctional infertility (Yang et al, 2005)
- Irregular menstrual cycles
- Absent periods (amenorrhoea)
- Painful periods (Dymenorroea) (Xiang,D et al, 2002; Jin et al, 2009; Chen at al, 2010; Tsenov 1996)
- Heavy periods (menorrhagia)
- Ovulation problems (onovulation) (Hung et al, 2008, Huang et al, 2008, Stener-Victorin, 2000))
- Hormone imbalances (Stener-Victorin et al, 2000; Gerhard et al, 1992)
- Emotional factors; stress, depression(Huang et al, 2008)
- Male factors; acupuncture can help men with sperm count, mobility, motility and vitality (Pei et al, 2005; Dieterle et al, 2009; Sierman et al, 2009)
- Thin endometrial lining (Yu et al, 2007)
In the case of endocrine dysfunctional infertility (hormonal imbalance), a randomised controlled trial found a statistically significant improvement in pregnancy rates with acupuncture over medication (Yang et al, 2005).
The Science of Acupuncture in Fertility
Further research taken place on various aspects of acupuncture and fertility, to work out the mechanisms of action – or how exactly the effects were occurring in the body following acupuncture.
Acupuncture has also been shown to improve uterine lining measurements (Yu et al, 2007), experimental studies show it improves blood flow toÂ the uterus and ovaries (Khorram et al, 2005, Stener-Victorin et al, 1996) which may be part of how acupuncture influences endometrial thickness.
Research also indicatesthat acupuncture canmodulate many of the body’s regulatory systems, including the nervous system; and influence the levels of different hormones and neurotransmitters (chemical signals) in the body, blood stream and brain (Stener-Victorin, 2006; Gerhard et al, 1992).
Acupuncture has also been shown to affect certain areas of the brain, which influence particular hormones involved in the menstrual cycle. It is thought that acupuncture balances the hormonal system by controlling the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The hormones and neurotransmitters that have been shown to be thus influenced in scientific studies include:
- Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)
- Lutenising hormone (LH)
- Follicle Stimulaitng Hormone (FSH)
- Prolactin (PRL)
- Oestrogen uptake
- Testosterone levels
- Beta-endorphin levels
During ovarian stimulation, acupuncture has the effect of normalising levels of the hormones cortisone and prolactin within the bloodstream (Magarelli et al, 2009). Magarelli et al (2006) theorise that acupuncture may be improving IVF outcomes by lowering the prolactin (PRL) levels before egg retrieval, (increased prolactin can interfere with ovulation).
Subsequently acupuncture raises the PRL levels in the luteal phase, helping to maintain a pregnancy(as PRL encourages the pituitary gland to secrete the correct amount of luteinizing hormone). LH and progesterone have been found to be raised by acupuncture, (He et al, 2009) and this up-regulation of reproductive hormones and growth factor may account for the improved success rates seen in studies.
Research shows that acupuncture can regulate gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH), stimulating ovulation and improving blood supply to the uterus (Huang et al, 2008). Acupuncture also improves LH/FSH ratios, testosterone and beta-endorphin levels, benefitting fertility (Stener-Victorin, 2010, Zhang et al, 2009))
In improving the implantation of blastocysts, acupuncture’s influence on a protein called Connexin 43 – which is crucial for heart muscle and nervous system formation – is thought to be involved with positive influence (Huang et al, 2009, Zhang et al, 2009))
In the case of PCOS, hormone levels, insulin and glucose responses have been improved with acupuncture, as shown in studies, this is thought to occur as acupuncture significantly increases beta-endorphin levels which in turn regulate FSH, LH and androgens via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Also, by lowering cortisol, and improving insulin sensitivity and thus decreasing glucose levels, acupuncture may also help weight loss in PCOS (Lim et al, 2010). It is also thought that increasing blood to the ovaries with acupuncture may reduce ovarian volume and the number of cysts.Acupuncture has been shown in studies to lower stress:both because of its effects on the brain, circulatory and nervous system, and because it is generally a very relaxing treatment. Studies have found levels of perceived stress,and stress scores are significantly lower in patients who receive acupuncture before and after embryo transfer, potentially contributing to the higher pregnancy rates in those who received acupuncture. (Balk et al, 2010; Sutton et al, 2015). Patients often feel very calm after acupuncture – and this effect can last between treatments. Studies suggest the calming effects of acupuncture are brought about by positive effects on the central nervous system, acupuncture significantly increases levels of beta-endorphin (feel-good hormones) and reduces levels of the stress hormone cortisol(Lim, et al 2010; Hung et al, 2008). This, in turn can benefit sleep and energy levels.
You may also wish to look at the following resources, our Scoop.it pages which we curate to bring together information and research on Fertility Acupuncture and also our our acupuncture pregnancy and childbirth resource page: Acupuncture in Pregnancy and Childbirth.
We are always happy to talk about what we do and how we work, happy to call you back at a convenient time you can arrange by speaking to our secretaries, or you can book a free 20 minute consultation with an acupuncturist to see our working environment and ask any questions you have.
The following are the references and bibliography from which this article has been written.
- Bibliography and References
Aquino CI, Nori SL. (2014) Complementary therapy in polycystic ovary syndrome.Transl Med UniSa. 2014 Apr 24;9:56-65. eCollection 2014 Apr. Review.Â Free PMC ArticleÂ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4012377/#!po=22.7273 PMID: 24809037
Balk, J; Janet Catov, Brandon Horn, Kimberly Gecsi, Anthony Wakim, The relationship between perceived stress, acupuncture, and pregnancy rates among IVF patients: A pilot study, Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, Volume 16, Issue 3, August 2010, Pages 154-157, ISSN 1744-3881, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2009.11.004. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1744388109001327
Bovey, M; Ava Lorenc, Nicola Robinson Extent of acupuncture practice for infertility in the United Kingdom: experiences and perceptions of the practitioners DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.03.072
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 94, Issue 7, p2569â€“2573 Published online: May 10 2010 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(10)00533-9/fulltext
British Acupuncture Council (2015) Puerperium http://www.acupuncture.org.uk/a-to-z-of-conditions/a-to-z-of-conditions/puerperium.html
British Acupuncture Council (2015) PCOS http://www.acupuncture.org.uk/a-to-z-of-conditions/a-to-z-of-conditions/pcos.html
British Acupuncture Council (2015) http://www.acupuncture.org.uk/a-to-z-of-conditions/a-to-z-of-conditions/endometriosis.html
British Acupuncture Council (2015) Dysmenorrhoea http://www.acupuncture.org.uk/a-to-z-of-conditions/a-to-z-of-conditions/dysmenorrhoea.html
British Acupuncture Council (2015) Infertility ART http://www.acupuncture.org.uk/a-to-z-of-conditions/a-to-z-of-conditions/infertility-art.html British Acupuncture Council (2015) Female fertility http://www.acupuncture.org.uk/a-to-z-of-conditions/a-to-z-of-conditions/female-fertility.html British Acupuncture COuncil (2015) Male Infertility http://www.acupuncture.org.uk/a-to-z-of-conditions/a-to-z-of-conditions/male-infertility.html
British Acupuncture Council (2015) Obstetrics http://www.acupuncture.org.uk/a-to-z-of-conditions/a-to-z-of-conditions/obstetrics.html
Chang R; ChungÂ P.H; Rosenwaks,Â Z (2002) Role of acupuncture in the treatment of female infertility Fertility and sterility 2002,Â vol.Â 78,Â no6,Â pp.Â 1149-1153Â http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12477502
Chen M, Zhang H, Li J, Dong GR. [Clinical observation on acupuncture combined with acupoint sticking therapy for treatment of dysmenorrhea caused by endometriosis]. Stefan Cheong YC, Hung Yu Ng E, Ledger WL. Acupuncture and assisted conception. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD006920. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006920.pub2.)Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2010 Sep;30(9):725-8. Chinese. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20886791
Cho SH1, Lee H, Ernst EAcupuncture for pain relief in labour: a systematic review and meta-analysisBJOG. 2010 Jul;117(8):907-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02570.x. Epub 2010 Apr 28. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20438555
Dieterle, S; Gao Ying, Wolfgang Hatzmann, Andreas Neuer Effect of acupuncture on the outcome of in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a randomized, prospective, controlled clinical studyDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.09.062
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 85, Issue 5, p1347â€“1351 Published online: April 7 2006 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(06)00213-5/fulltext
Dieterle, S; Chunfang Li, Robert Greb, Felix Bartzsch, Wolfgang Hatzmann, Dongmei Huang A prospective randomized placebo-controlled study of the effect of acupuncture in infertile patients with severe oligoasthenozoospermiaDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.02.041
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 92, Issue 4, p1340â€“1343 Published online: April 27 2009
Dooley, Michael (2006) Complementary therapy and obstetrics and gynaecology: a time to integrate Current Opinion in Obstetrics &Gynecology. 18(6):648-652, December 2006 http://journals.lww.com/co-obgyn/Abstract/2006/12000/Complementary_therapy_and_obstetrics_and.13.aspx
Ng EH, So WS, Gao J, Wong YY, Ho PC. The role of acupuncture in the management of subfertility.FertilSteril. 2008 Jul;90(1):1-13., Huang ST, Chen AP. Traditional Chinese medicine and infertility. CurrOpinObstet Gynecol. 2008 Jun;20(3):211-5Gerhard I, Postneek F. Auricular acupuncture in the treatment of female infertility. GynecolEndocrinol. 1992 Sep;6(3):171-81.Â http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1442162
He, D.J. Huang G.Y. Zhang M.M. [Effects of acupuncture on the luteal function of rats with dysfunctional embryo implantation] [Chinese].Zhongguozhenjiu. 2009; 29(11):910-913
Huang, Guang Ying; Zheng, Cui Hong; Wu, Yun Xia; Wang,Wei Involvement of connexin 43 in the acupuncture effect of improving rat blastocyst implantation DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.09.036
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 93, Issue 5, p1715â€“1717 Published online: November 6 2009 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(09)03715-7/fulltext
Huang ST, Chen AP. Traditional Chinese medicine and infertility. CurrOpinObstet Gynecol. 2008 Jun;20(3):211-5. http://journals.lww.com/co-obgyn/Abstract/2008/06000/Traditional_Chinese_medicine_and_infertility.4.aspx
Jedel E, Labrie F, OdÃ©n A, Holm G, Nilsson L, Janson PO, Lind AK, Ohlsson C, Stener-Victorin E.Â (2011) Impact of electro-acupuncture and physical exercise on hyperandrogenism and oligo/amenorrhea in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Am J PhysiolEndocrinolMetab. 2011 Jan;300(1):E37-45. Epub 2010 Oct 13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20943753
Jin YB, Sun ZL, Jin HF. [Randomized controlled study on ear-electroacupuncture treatment of endometriosis-induced dysmenorrhea in patients].Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2009 Jun;34(3):188-92. Chinese. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19761114
Johansson, Julia; Yi Feng, Ruijin Shao, MalinLÃ¶nn, HÃ¥kanBillig, ElisabetStener-Victorin Intense acupuncture normalizes insulin sensitivity, increases muscle GLUT4 content, and improves lipid profile in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism http://www.researchgate.net/publication/45388940_Intense_acupuncture_normalizes_insulin_sensitivity_increases_muscle_GLUT4_content_and_improves_lipid_profile_in_a_rat_model_of_polycystic_ovary_syndrome
Khorram, N.M.; S. Horton, V. SahakianThe Effect of Acupuncture on Outcome of in Vitro Fertilization DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.07.954
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 84, S364 Published in issue: September 2005 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(05)02413-1/fulltext
Lim, Chi EungDanforn; Jenny Wilkinson, WS Felix Wong, Nga Chong Lisa Cheng Effect of Acupuncture on Induction of Labor Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.)Â 11/2009; 15(11):1209-14. DOI: 10.1089/acm.2009.0100 http://www.researchgate.net/publication/38098009_Effect_of_Acupuncture_on_Induction_of_LaborLim, CE, Wong WS.Current evidence of acupuncture on polycystic ovarian syndrome.GynecolEndocrinol. 2010 Mar 16. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/09513591003686304
Ernest Hung Yu Ng, Wing Sze So, Jing Gao, Yu Yeuk Wong, Pak Chung The role of acupuncture in the management of subfertilityDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.02.094
p1â€“13 Published online: April 28 2008 http://www.fertstert.org/issue/S0015-0282(08)X0010-X
Â Li,Xun ;Jun Hu, Xiaoyi Wang, Huirui Zhang, and Jianping Liu. Moxibustion and other acupuncture point stimulation methods to treat breech presentation: a systematic review of clinical trials. Chin Med 2009;4:4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2663768/
Magarelli, P.C; Cridennda, D.K and M. Cohen, M (2004) Acupuncture and good prognosis IVF patients: Synergy Fertility and Sterility Volume 82, Supplement 2, September 2004, Pages S80-S81Â Â Â http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(04)01505-5/fulltext
Magarelli, P.C.; M. Cohen, D.K. CridenndaProposed mechanism of action of acupuncture on IVF outcomes DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2006.07.464
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 86, Issue 3, S174â€“S175 Published in issue: September 2006 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(06)02043-7/fulltext
Magarelli, Paul C.; Diane K. Cridennda, Mel Cohen, Changes in serum cortisol and prolactin associated with acupuncture during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in women undergoing in vitro fertilizationâ€“embryo transfer treatment, Fertility and Sterility, Volume 92, Issue 6, December 2009, Pages 1870-1879, ISSN 0015-0282, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.10.067.(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0015028208044142)
Manber, Rachel PhD; Schnyer, Rosa N. DAOM, LAc; Lyell, Deirdre MD; Chambers, Andrea S. PhD; Caughey, Aaron B. MD, PhD; Druzin, Maurice MD; Carlyle, Erin MS; Celio, Christine MS; Gress, Jenna L. BA; Huang, Mary I. MS; Kalista, Tasha MA; Martin-Okada, Robin BS; Allen, John J. B. PhD Acupuncture for depression during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. ObstetGynecol 2010;115:511-20 http://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Fulltext/2010/03000/Acupuncture_for_Depression_During_Pregnancy__A.7.aspx
Manheimer, E; Zhang, G; Udoff, L; Haramati, A; Langenberg, P; Berman, BM; Bouter, LM; (2008) Effects of acupuncture on rates of pregnancy and live birth among women undergoing in vitro fertilisation: systematic review and meta-analysis BMJ (2008) 336:517â€“518 http://www.bmj.com/content/336/7643/545
Omodei, U; G. Piccioni, S. Tombesi, D. Dordoni, L. Fallo, F. GhilardiEffect of acupuncture on rates of pregnancy among women undergoing in vitro fertilization DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.07.676
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 94, Issue 4, S170 Published in issue: September 2010 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(10)01781-4/fulltext
Paulus, WE; Mingmin Zhang, Erwin Strehler, Imam El-Danasouri, Karl Sterzik
Influence of acupuncture on the pregnancy rate in patients who undergo assisted reproduction therapyÂ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0015-0282(01)03273-3Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 77, Issue 4, p721â€“724 Published in issue: April 2002Â http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(01)03273-3/fulltext
Pei, J; Erwin Strehler, Ulrich Noss, Markus Abt, Paola Piomboni, BaccioBaccetti, Karl SterzikQuantitative evaluation of spermatozoa ultrastructure after acupuncture treatment for idiopathic male infertility DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2004.12.056
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 84, Issue 1, p141â€“147 Published in issue: July 2005 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(05)00591-1/fulltext
Ren LN,Â Guo LH,Â Ma WZ,Â Zhang R. (2014)Â [A meta-analysis onÂ acupunctureÂ treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome].Zhen Ci Yan Jiu.Â 2014 Jun;39(3):238-46.Â [Article in Chinese] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25069203
Smith, Caroline; Meaghan Coyle, Robert J. Norman, Influence of acupuncture stimulation on pregnancy rates for women undergoing embryo transfer, Fertility and Sterility, Volume 85, Issue 5, May 2006, Pages 1352-1358, ISSN 0015-0282, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.12.015. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0015028206002159
Siterman, Shimon; FinaEltes, Liora Schechter, YairMaimon, Hanny Lederman, Benjamin Bartoov Success of acupuncture treatment in patients with initially low sperm output is associated with a decrease in scrotal skin temperature. Asian Journal of Andrology 2009; 11: 200-8.)Â http://www.researchgate.net/publication/23720358_Success_of_acupuncture_treatment_in_patients_with_initially_low_sperm_output_is_associated_with_a_decrease_in_scrotal_skin_temperature
Smith, C; Crowther, C and Beilby, J (2002) Acupuncture To Treat Nausea and Vomiting in Early Pregnancy: A Randomized Controlled Trial Birth Volume 29 Issue 1, Pages 1 â€“ 9
Stener-Victorin, E;A. Benrick, M. Kokosar, M. Maliqueo, C. Behre, K. HÃ¸jlund, A. Sazonova Acupuncture increases whole body glucose uptake during and after stimulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.07.107
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 102, Issue 3, e29 Published in issue: September 2014 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(14)00734-1/fulltext
Stener-Victorin E, WaldenstrÃ¶m U, Andersson SA, Wikland M. Reduction of blood flow impedance in the uterine arteries of infertile women with electro-acupuncture. Hum Reprod. 1996 Jun;11(6):1314-7.Â Â http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8671446
ElisabetStener-Victorin, FaribaBaghaei, GÃ¶ran Holm, Per OlofJanson, GunillaOlivecrona, MalinLÃ¶nn, Louise MannerÃ¥s-Holm Effects of acupuncture and exercise on insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue characteristics, and markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.11.010
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 97, Issue 2, p501â€“508 Published online: December 9 2011 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(11)02764-6/fulltext
Stener-Victorin E, Jedel E, Janson PO, Sverrisdottir YB. Low-frequency electroacupuncture and physical exercise decrease high muscle sympathetic nerve activity in polycystic ovary syndrome. Am J PhysiolRegulIntegr Comp Physiol. 2009 Aug;297(2):R387-95.
Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Xiaoke Wu, Effects and mechanisms of acupuncture in the reproductive system, Autonomic Neuroscience, Volume 157, Issues 1â€“2, 28 October 2010, Pages 46-51, ISSN 1566-0702, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1566070210000536
Stener-Victorin E, WaldenstrÃ¶m U, TÃ¤gnfors U, Lundeberg T, Lindstedt G, Janson PO. Effects of electro-acupuncture on anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndromeÂ ActaObstetGynecol Scand. 2000 Mar;79(3):180-8 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10716298
Sutton, C.; S. Pentland, J. Roberts A Comparison of Stress Levels in Women Undergoing Single Versus Multiple Acupuncture Session Prior to Embryo Transfer DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.12.070
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 103, Issue 2, e36â€“e37 Published in issue: February 2015 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(14)02492-3/fulltext
Tsenov D. [The effect of acupuncture in dysmenorrhea].AkushGinekol (Sofiia). 1996;35(3):24-5. Bulgarian. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9045554
Udoff, L.C.; H.D. McClamrock, K. Chen, G. Zhang The effect of acupuncture on pregnancy outcomes in in-vitro fertilization (IVF): a randomized controlled trialÂ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2014.07.1128
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 102, Issue 3, e333Published in issue: September 2014 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(14)01755-5/fulltext
Westergaard, Lars G.; Qunhui Mao, Marianne Krogslund, Steen Sandrini, Suzan Lenz, JÃ¸rgenGrinstedAcupuncture on the day of embryo transfer significantly improves the reproductive outcome in infertile women: a prospective, randomized trial DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.08.070
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 85, Issue 5, p1341â€“1346 Published online: April 5 2006 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(06)00212-3/fulltext
van den Berg I, Bosch JL, Jacobs B, Bouman I, Duvekot JJ, Hunink MG. Effectiveness of acupuncture-type interventions versus expectant management to correct breech presentation: a systematic review. Complement Ther Med 2008;16:92-100.) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18514911
Vas J, Aranda JM, Nishishinya B, Mendez C, Martin MA, Pons J, Liu JP, Wang CY, Perea-Milla E. Correction of nonvertex presentation with moxibustion: a systematic review and metaanalysis.Am J Obstet Gynecol.2009 Sep;201(3):241-59. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2008.12.026. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19733275
Xiang D, Situ Y, Liang X, Cheng L, Zhang G.Ear acupuncture therapy for 37 cases of dysmenorrhea due to endometriosis.J Tradit Chin Med. 2002 Dec;22(4):282-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16579094
Xu, Jin; MacKenzie, Ian Z.The current use of acupuncture during pregnancy and childbirth Current Opinion in Obstetrics &Gynecology. 24(2):65-71, March 2012. Â http://journals.lww.com/co-obgyn/Abstract/2012/03000/The_current_use_of_acupuncture_during_pregnancy.3.aspx
Yang JR, Ma YY, Liu YL,Â Wang HL, Liu Z. [Controlled study on acupuncture for treatment of endocrine dysfunctional infertility] [Chinese]. ZhongguoZhenjiu. 2005;25(5):299-300
- Yu, B. Horn, B. Acacio, D. Ni, R. Quintero, M. NourianiA Pilot Study Evaluating the Combination of Acupuncture with Sildenafil on Endometrial Thickness DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2007.01.203
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 87, Issue 4, S23Â Published in issue: April 2007 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(07)00497-9/fulltext
Zheng YH,Â Wang XH,Â Lai MH,Â Yao H,Â Liu H,Â Ma HX. (2013) Effectiveness of abdominal acupuncture for patients with obesity-type polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.J Altern Complement Med.Â 2013 Sep;19(9):740-5. doi: 10.1089/acm.2012.0429. Epub 2013 May 15. link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23676106
Zheng, Cui Hong; Guang Ying Huang, Ming Min Zhang, Wei Wang Effects of acupuncture on pregnancy rates in women undergoing inÂ vitro fertilization: a systematic review andÂ meta-analysis DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.12.007Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 97, Issue 3, p599â€“611 Published online: January 12 2012 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(11)02859-7/fulltext
Zhang, Rong; Xiao-Jun Feng, Qun Guan, Wei Cui, Ying Zheng, Wei Sun, Ji-Sheng Han Increase of success rate for women undergoing embryo transfer by transcutaneous electrical acupointÂ stimulation: a prospective randomized placebo-controlled study DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.07.1093
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 96, Issue 4, p912â€“916Published online: August 22 2011 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(11)02190-X/fulltext
Zhang, M; W.E Paulus, E Strehler, L Jelinkova, K Sterzik Increase of pregnancy rate in assisted reproduction therapy by acupuncture.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0015-0282(01)02231-2
Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 76, Issue 3, S75 Published in issue: September 2001 http://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(01)02231-2/fulltext
Zhang,Â Yuehui; Yiman Fu,Â Fengjuan Han,Â Hongying Kuang,Â Min Hu,Â and Xiaoke WuReview Article The Effect of Complementary and Alternative Medicine on Subfertile Women with In Vitro Fertilization Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine VolumeÂ 2014Â (2014), Article IDÂ 419425, 22 pages http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/419425/
Zhang WY, Huang GY, Liu J. [Influences of acupuncture on infertility of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome] [in Chinese] ZhongguoZhong Xi Yi Jie He ZaZhi. 2009 Nov;29(11):997-1000.